Name of Ethnic Group: Hoa (Han).
Population: Over 900,000
Locality: The Hoa
live in all parts of Vietnam from north to south, in both urban centres
and rural regions.
Customs and Habits: They build
houses usually with three rooms and live close together. The families
of the same lineage always reside together. In a Hoa family, the husband
is the head of the household. The right of inheritance is reserved for
the sons only. The eldest son always gets the greater part of the property.
Parents decide the marriage arrangement of their children, and early
marriages are common. The choice of a husband or a wife is often based
on the desires of the family to have equal social standing or are dictated
by business considerations.
According to customs, funerals must go through several rituals.
The cycle starts with informing others of the mourning process, wearing
mourning clothes, wrapping the corpse, opening the road for the dead
soul, burying the dead, bringing their soul to the "country of
Buddha in the west", and the last rite is the completion of the
mourning process. Since respect for the dead is very important, in all
villages and hamlets, there are temples, pagodas, and shrines built
for veneration of the dead.
Culture: The Hoa language belongs
to the Han Group.
Costumes: Hoa men
have adopted a dress similar to the Nung, Giay, Mong, and Dao. Hoa women's
garments consist of a pair of trousers, a five-panelled vest which falls
to mid-thigh, and a short sleeve shirt with five-panels.
Economy: The Hoa
practice various occupations including agriculture, handicrafts, trading,
fishing, and salt-making. Hoa farmers have a long tradition of cultivating
submerged fields. They also work as laborers, teachers, cadres, and
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